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各國如何紀念逝去的人?

Source: 恒星英語學習網    2019-04-06  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  

無論身在何方,思念和懷舊是一種普世情懷,世界上只要有華人的地方,每逢清明節人們就會按照傳統習俗,在當地眺望故里,遙寄追念。

【清明故事】

Qing Ming or Thanksgiving?
清明節源于感恩情懷

Qingming is popularly associated with Jie Zidui in the Spring and Autumn Period, who saved his starving lord's life by serving meat cut from his own leg. The lord, known as Jinwengong, was later able to take power and decided to reward Jie but he declined. Jinwengong tried to force Jie out of a forest by fire but instead burned him to death and felt deep regret. He ordered all his people to ban the use of fire and eat cold food that day to mark Jie's death. It is the origin of the Cold Food Festival, which starts one or 2 days before Qing Ming and later merges with Qingming. Qingming Festival then became an important holiday from an originally simple farming day.

春秋時代,介子堆曾割下自己腿上的肉讓逃亡的晉國公子重耳充饑。重耳執政后要封賞他,但介子堆隱居山林拒絕封賞。無奈,晉文公重耳放火燒山想逼他出山,不料卻燒死了恩人。自此,晉文公下令每年的這一天禁止生火,只吃冷食,這就是寒食節的來歷。因寒食節恰好在清明前一兩天,久而久之,寒食的習俗逐漸被移到清明中,清明便從單純的農業節氣變為重要節日"清明節"了。

 

【各國如何紀念逝者】


Orchid Basin Festival
日本:擺放火盆迎祖靈


Falling on July 15th according to the lunar calendar, Orchid Basin Festival is one of the big events in Japan all people observe. Japan usually gives people 3 days off to go back to their hometowns to pay respect to their ancestors. It is said that the ancestors' spirits will return home, and so each household put fire basins outside at the gate and hang lanterns for the spirits to find their way back.
盂蘭盆節是日本最盛大的節日之一,每年農歷7月15日舉行。日本全國放假3天,讓城里人返鄉祭祖。據說在這段時間,逝去的祖靈都會回到家中,為防止祖靈找不到家,人們會在家門口擺放歡迎的火盆,并在屋內掛上燈籠。

 

 

Diwali-Festival of Lights
印度:點燃蠟燭紀念故人


Diwali or Deepavali, the festival of "rows of lights", is one of the most important of all Hindu festivals. People place candles on the stairs, hallway and balcony at home when night falls that day to pay respect for the deceased and pray for the family. Lighting lamps and candles during the festival is also considered auspicious by bringing light, knowledge and eternal life from darkness, ignorance and death.
燈節為印度每年最大的節日。節日當天,夜幕降臨后,人們會在樓梯、走廊、陽臺及屋里都放上點燃的蠟燭,為死者祈禱,并期盼亡靈保佑家人平安。點燈還被視為帶來光明、知識、永恒,驅走黑暗、無知和死亡。

 

All Soul's Day
墨西哥:化妝骷髏大游行


All Soul's Day, also called the "Day of the Dead" usually occurs on November 2, when families fondly remember the deceased by praying before an altar. It's also a time marked by festivities, including parades of skeletons. In one notable tradition, revelers lead a mock funeral procession with a live person inside a coffin.
萬靈節是墨西哥的傳統節日之一,又稱掃墓節,定在每年11月2日。人們在家里擺祭壇,供上祭品,悼念死去的親人。氣氛濃厚的節日傳統還包括化妝骷髏的盛大游行,以及把活人放進棺材里的"假面葬禮"。

 

Day of the dead
波蘭:點蠟燭給亡靈指路


Poland and most of the Catholic world have celebrated the festival for many centuries. Also known as All Saints Day, it's a national holiday when people all over Poland visit the graves of loved ones and to place candles and flowers at tombstones. The candles, which can burn for hours, are placed to help the departed souls find the way home.
每年11月1日,波蘭及絕大多數信奉天主教的國家都要舉行亡人節,也稱萬靈節,以悼念逝人。這天是法定假日,人們都去掃墓,擺上鮮花并點上可燃燒幾小時的蠟燭,給亡靈指引回家的路。

 

Memorial Day in US
美國:鳴槍悼念陣亡烈士


Memorial Day is a US national holiday observed on the last Monday of May. It commemorates those who died while in military service to their country. Soldiers in service and veterans go to cemeteries to pay respect to their dead peers by firing guns and blowing trumpets. First enacted to honor American soldiers and casualties in the civil war, the 2 World Wars and other military actions, it later evolved as a popular civil festival for each family to commemorate the passing of their loved ones.
美國的陣亡烈士日通常在每年5月的最后一個周一,是法定假日。每逢這個日子,美國現役軍人和老戰士便前往墓地,鳴槍并吹響軍中熄燈號,讓死難將士安息。此節日最初用來紀念在南北戰爭和兩次世界大戰中戰死的兵士,后來逐漸發展為一般家庭祭奠逝去的親人。

 

【葬禮盤點:揭秘世界10大葬禮方式】


1.earth burial - originated in the Stone Age and popular worldwide
土葬:產生于舊石器時代,流行于世界各地。


2.cremation - the most widely used
火葬:目前被應用最廣泛的葬禮。


3.water burial - floating and soaking corpse and scattering ashes in waters, observed in Oceania
水葬:最古老的葬禮之一,分為漂尸、投河和撒灰三種,多見于大洋洲一帶。

 
4.celestial burial - the Tibetans believe corpse eaten by golden eagles could enter heaven
天葬:尸體被鷲鷹啄食,藏族認為死者這樣可順利升天。


5.hole burial - put the coffin in mountain holes
洞葬:在位于山腰的洞口擺放棺柩。


6.tree burial - bury ashes under a tree as a green funeral
樹葬:把骨灰埋于樹下,最環保的殯葬方式。


7.hanging coffin - common in ancient China by hanging coffin on mountains, the higher the better
懸棺葬:普遍用于中國古代,將木棺懸置于崖洞中。懸置越高,對死者越尊敬。

 

8.sand burial - corpse buried under the sand could be well preserved,
沙葬:將死者裝入麻袋,投入流沙,尸體脫水不會腐爛,可保存上千年。


9.wind burial - under the exposure of air
風葬:亦稱"露天葬",將遺體裸露于樹木或曠野中。


10.mummy - the most long-lasting method to preserve a corpse intact
木乃伊:即"人工干尸",尸體一般不會腐爛,可保存數千年。


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